Mosaic of Lunar Orbiter 4 images
|Colongitude||3° at sunrise|
|Eponym||Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī|
Arzachel is a relatively young lunar impact crater located in the highlands in the south-central part of the visible Moon, close to the zero meridian (the visible center of the Moon). It lies to the south of the crater Alphonsus, and together with Ptolemaeus further north the three form a prominent line of craters to the east of Mare Nubium. The smaller Alpetragius lies to the northwest, and Thebit is to the southwest along the edge of the mare.
Arzachel is remarkably clear in its structure and a favorite telescope viewing subject for advanced amateur astronomers. The rim of Arzachel shows little sign of wear and has a detailed terrace structure on the interior, especially on the slightly higher eastern rim. There is a rough outer rampart that joins a ridge running from the north rim to southern rim of Alphonsus.
The rugged central peak of Arzachel is prominent, rising 1.5 kilometers above the floor, and is somewhat offset to the west with a bowed curve from south to north-northeast. The floor is relatively flat, except for some irregularities in the southwestern quadrant of the crater. There is a rille system named the Rimae Arzachel that runs from the northern wall to the southeast rim. A small crater lies prominently in the floor to the east of the central peak, with a pair of smaller craterlets located nearby.
Arzachel is a Latinization of the name of the Arab astronomer and mathematician Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī. Like many of the craters on the Moon's near side, Arzachel was named by Giovanni Riccioli, whose 1651 nomenclature system has become standardized. Earlier lunar cartographers had given the feature different names: Michael van Langren's 1645 map calls it "Annae, Reg. Fran.", after Anne, the Regent of France, and Johannes Hevelius called it "Mons Cragus" after one of the Mount Craguses of the ancient world.
By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Arzachel.
|A||18.0° S||1.5° W||10 km|
|B||17.0° S||2.9° W||8 km|
|C||17.4° S||3.7° W||6 km|
|D||20.2° S||2.1° W||8 km|
|H||18.7° S||2.0° W||5 km|
|K||18.3° S||1.6° W||4 km|
|L||20.0° S||0.1° E||8 km|
|M||20.6° S||0.9° W||3 km|
|N||20.4° S||2.2° W||3 km|
|T||17.7° S||1.3° W||3 km|
|Y||18.2° S||4.3° W||4 km|
- "Arzachel (crater)". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
- Ewen A. Whitaker, Mapping and Naming the Moon (Cambridge University Press, 1999), p.211.
- Ewen A. Whitaker, Mapping and Naming the Moon (Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 197.
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- McDowell, Jonathan (July 15, 2007). "Lunar Nomenclature". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 2007-10-24.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Menzel, D. H.; Minnaert, M.; Levin, B.; Dollfus, A.; Bell, B. (1971). "Report on Lunar Nomenclature by the Working Group of Commission 17 of the IAU". Space Science Reviews. 12 (2): 136–186. Bibcode:1971SSRv...12..136M. doi:10.1007/BF00171763.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Moore, Patrick (2001). On the Moon. Sterling Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-304-35469-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Price, Fred W. (1988). The Moon Observer's Handbook. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33500-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Rükl, Antonín (1990). Atlas of the Moon. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 978-0-913135-17-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Webb, Rev. T. W. (1962). Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes (6th revised ed.). Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-20917-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Whitaker, Ewen A. (1999). Mapping and Naming the Moon. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62248-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wlasuk, Peter T. (2000). Observing the Moon. Springer. ISBN 978-1-85233-193-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arzachel (crater).|
- Arzachel at The Moon Wiki
- Arzachel mapped and illustrated
- Wood, Chuck (March 29, 2004). "Hoover Dam (and Surroundings)". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- Wood, Chuck (May 15, 2004). "The Golden Triad". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
- Wood, Chuck (July 17, 2006). "Another FFC". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011.
- Wood, Chuck (September 16, 2006). "Just Another Glorious Image". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011.
- Wood, Chuck (November 27, 2006). "A Long Line in the Matter of Confidence". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011.
- NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Ptolemaeus, Alphonsus and Arzachel (9 February 2007)
- Wood, Chuck (February 13, 2007). "New Observations of a Well-Known Area". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011.
- Wood, Chuck (April 8, 2009). "Rilles Almost All Round". Lunar Photo of the Day.