Mammal classification

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Over 70% of mammal species are in the orders Rodentia (blue), Chiroptera (red) and Soricomorpha (yellow).
  Pilosa

Mammalia is a class of animal within the phylum Chordata. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is universally accepted; McKenna & Bell (1997) and Wilson & Reader (2005) provide useful recent compendiums.[1] Many earlier ideas from Linnaeus et al. have been completely abandoned by modern taxonomists, among these are the idea that bats are related to birds or that humans represent a group outside of other living things.[2] Competing ideas about the relationships of mammal orders do persist and are currently in development. Most significantly in recent years, cladistic thinking has led to an effort to ensure that all taxonomic designations represent monophyletic groups. The field has also seen a recent surge in interest and modification due to the results of molecular phylogenetics.

George Gaylord Simpson's classic "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" (Simpson, 1945) taxonomy text laid out a systematics of mammal origins and relationships that was universally taught until the end of the 20th century.

Since Simpson's 1945 classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, and the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself, partly through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work gradually made Simpson's classification outdated, it remained the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. See List of placental mammals and List of monotremes and marsupials for more detailed information on mammal genera and species.

Molecular classification of placentals[edit]

Molecular studies by molecular systematists, based on DNA analysis, in the early 21st century have revealed new relationships among mammal families. Classification systems based on molecular studies reveal three major groups or lineages of placental mammals, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, and Boreotheria. which diverged from early common ancestors in the Cretaceous.[3]

The relationships between these three lineages is contentious, and all three have been proposed as basal in different hypotheses.[3][4][5]

The following taxonomy only includes living placentals (infraclass Eutheria):[citation needed]

Atlantogenata[edit]

Afrotheria[edit]

Xenarthra[edit]

Boreoeutheria[edit]

Euarchontoglires[edit]

Masoala fork-marked lemur (Cheirogaleus) Phaner furcifer
  • Superorder Euarchonta
  • Superorder Glires
    • Order Lagomorpha: pikas, rabbits, hares (Eurasia, Africa, Americas)
      • Family Leporidae: (60 species), rabbits and hares (Eurasia, Africa, Americas)
      • Family Ochotonidae: (30 species), pikas (Holarctic)
    • Order Rodentia: rodents (cosmopolitan)
      • Suborder Castorimorpha
        • Family Castoridae: (2 species) beavers (Holarctic)
        • Family Geomyidae: (about 35 species) pocket gophers (North America)
        • Family Heteromyidae: (about 59 species) kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice (North America)
      • Suborder Myomorpha
        • Family Dipodidae: (33 species) jerboas (Africa, Eurasia, North America)
        • Family Zapodidae: (11 species) jumping mice (North America, Asia)
        • Family Sicistidae: (19 species) birch mice (Eurasia)
        • Family Platacanthomyidae: (3 species) spiny dormouse (Southeast Asia)
        • Family Spalacidae: (37 species) zokors, root rats, blind mole rats (Africa, Eurasia)
        • Family Calomyscidae: (8 species) mouse-like hamsters (Asia)
        • Family Nesomyidae: (68 species) old endemic African muroids (Africa, Madagascar)
        • Family Cricetidae: (about 580 species) hamsters, voles, and New World rats and mice (Holarctic, South America)
        • Family Muridae: (about 1,383 species) Old World rats and mice and gerbils (Africa, Eurasia, Australia)
      • Suborder Anomaluromorpha
        • Family Anomaluridae: (6 species) scaly-tailed flying squirrels (Africa)
        • Family Pedetidae: (2 species) springhares or springhaas (Africa)
      • Suborder Hystricomorpha
        • Family Ctenodactylidae: (5 species) gundis (Africa, Asia)
        • Family Diatomyidae: (1 species) Laotian rock rat (Southeast Asia)
        • Family Hystricidae: (11 Species) Old World porcupines (Africa, Asia)
        • Family Bathyergidae: (about 21 species) African mole-rats (Africa)
        • Family Petromuridae: (1 species) rock dassies (Africa)
        • Family Thryonomyidae: (2 species) cane rats (Africa)
        • Family Erethizontidae: (19 species) New World porcupines (New World)
        • Family Chinchillidae: (3 species) chinchillas and viscachas (South America)
        • Family Dinomyidae: (1 species) pacarana (South America)
        • Family Caviidae: (18 species) cavies and capybara (South America)
        • Family Dasyproctidae: (13 species) agoutis and acouchis (South America)
        • Family Cuniculidae: (about 3 species) paca (South America)
        • Family Ctenomyidae: (about 60 species) tuco-tucos (South America)
        • Family Octodontidae: (14 species) degus (South America)
        • Family Abrocomidae: (9 species) chinchilla-rats (South America)
        • Family Echimyidae: spiny rats (South America)
        • Family Capromyidae: (10 species) hutias (South America)
        • Family Heptaxodontidae: giant Hutias (recently extinct)
        • Family Myocastoridae: (57 species) nutrias (South America)
      • Suborder Sciuromorpha
        Mountain beaver (Aplodont)
        • Family Aplodontiidae: (1 species) mountain beaver (western North America)
        • Family Sciuridae: (about 285 species) squirrels, chipmunks, and marmots (cosmopolitan except Australia)
        • Family Gliridae: (29 species) dormice (Africa, Eurasia)

Laurasiatheria[edit]

  • Order Eulipotyphla
    • Family Solenodontidae: (2 species) solenodons (Cuba, Hispaniola)
    • Family Nesophontidae: nesophontes (West Indies shrews) [recently extinct]
    • Family Soricidae: (385 species) shrews (Eurasia, Africa, North America to northern South America)
    • Family Talpidae: (59 species) moles, shrew-moles, desmans (Eurasia, North America)
    • Family Erinaceidae: (26 species)hedgehogs, gymnures (Eurasia, Africa)
    • Family Galericidae: (8 species) moonrats (southeast Asia)
  • Grandorder Chiroptera
    • Order Chiroptera: bats
      • Suborder Yinpterochiroptera
        • Family Pteropodidae: (about 197 species) flying foxes (Africa, Eurasia, Australia)
        • Family Hipposideridae: (84 species) trident bats, leaf-nosed bats
        • Family Rhinolophidae: (106 species) horseshoe bats (Old World)
        • Family Rhinopomatidae: (6 species) mouse-tailed bats (Africa, Southeast Asia)
        • Family Craseonycteridae: (1 species) Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Thailand)
        • Family Megadermatidae: (6 species) false vampire bats (Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia)
      • Suborder Yangochiroptera
        • Family Emballonuridae: (54 species) sac-winged bats (southern continents)
        • Family Nycteridae: (about 15 species) slit-faced bats (Africa, Southeast Asia)
        • Family Mystacinidae: (about 2 species) short-tailed bats (New Zealand)
        • Family Thyropteridae: (5 species) sucker-footed bats (South America)
        • Family Furipteridae: (2 species) smoky bats (South America)
        • Family Noctilionidae: (2 species) fishing bats (South America)
        • Family Mormoopidae: (about 11 species) leaf-chinned bats (South America)
        • Family Phyllostomidae: (192 species) leaf-nosed bats (South America)
        • Family Myzopodidae: (2 species) sucker-footed bats (Madagascar)
        • Family Natalidae: (10 species) funnel-eared bats (South America)
        • Family Molossidae: (about 110 species) free-tailed bats (cosmopolitan)
        • Family Miniopteridae: (about 40 species) long-fingered bats (Africa, Eurasia, Australia)
        • Family Cistugidae: (2 species) wing-gland bats (Southern Africa)
        • Family Vespertilionidae: (over 300 species) vesper bats (cosmopolitan)
  • Grandorder Ferae
    • Order Pholidota
      • Family Manidae: (about 8 species) pangolins, scaly anteaters (Africa, South Asia)
    • Order Carnivora: carnivorans (cosmopolitan)
      • Suborder Feliformia
        • Family Nandiniidae: (4 species) African palm civet (Central Africa)
        • Family Prionodontidae: (2 species) Asiatic linsangs (Southeast Asia)
        • Family Felidae: (41 species) cats (cosmopolitan except Australia)
        • Family Viverridae: (33 species) civets, Asiatic palm civets (Africa, Southern Europe, Southeast Asia)
        • Family Herpestidae: (34 species) mongooses (Africa, Asia, Southern Europe)
        • Family Eupleridae: (10 species) Malagasy carnivorans (Madagascar)
        • Family Hyaenidae: (4 species) hyaenas, aardwolf (Africa)
      • Suborder Caniformia
        • Family Canidae: (38 species) dogs (cosmopolitan)
        • Family Ursidae: (8 species) bears (Europe, Asia, New World)
        • Family Otariidae: (15 species) eared seals (cosmopolitan except North Atlantic)
        • Family Odobenidae: (1 species) walrus (Northern North American, Northern Europe, Northern Asia)
        • Family Phocidae: (18 species) true seals (cosmopolitan)
        • Family Ailuridae: (1 species) red panda (South-Central Asia)
        • Family Mephitidae: (12 species) skunks (Southeast Asia, New World)
        • Family Mustelidae: (about 69 species) weasels and relatives (cosmopolitan except Australia)
        • Family Procyonidae: (14 species) ringtails, olingos, kinkajou, raccoons, coatis (New World)
  • Grandorder Ungulata
    • Order Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates
      • Family Equidae: (13 species) horses, zebras, donkeys (Africa, West and Central Asia)
      • Family Tapiridae: (3 species) tapirs (Central and South America, Southeast Asia)
      • Family Rhinocerotidae: (5 species) rhinoceroses (Africa, Southeast Asia)
    • Order Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates (now includes Cetaceans)
      • Suborder Suiformes
        • Family Suidae: (18 species) pigs (Africa, Eurasia)
          Pig and piglet
        • Family Tayassuidae: (about 3 species) peccaries (New World)
      • Suborder Tylopoda
        • Family Camelidae: (7 species) camels (South America, Asia)
      • Suborder Ruminantia
        • Family Tragulidae: (10 species) mouse-deer (Africa, Asia)
        • Family Antilocapridae: (1 species) pronghorn (North America)
        • Family Giraffidae: (2-9 species) giraffe and okapi (Africa)
          Giraffe
        • Family Cervidae: (26 species) deer (Holarctic, South America)
        • Family Moschidae: (7 species) musk deer (Asia)
          Muntjac deer
        • Family Bovidae: (143 species) cattle, antelope, sheep, etc. (Africa, Holarctic)
          Pair of Icelandic Sheep
      • Suborder Whippomorpha
        • Family Hippopotamidae: (2 species) hippos (Africa)
        • Infraorder Cetacea
          • Parvorder Mysticeti
            • Family Balaenopteridae: (10 species) rorquals and grey whales (cosmopolitan)
            • Family Balaenidae: (4 species) right and bowhead whales (polar and temperate waters)
            • Family Eschrichtiidae: (1 species) gray whale (North Pacific and North Atlantic)
            • Family Neobalaenidae: (1 species) pygmy right whales (southern hemisphere)
          • Parvorder Odontoceti
            • Family Delphinidae: (about 37 species) dolphins (cosmopolitan)
            • Family Monodontidae: (2 species) beluga and narwhal (Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific)
            • Family Phocoenidae: (8 species) porpoises (cosmopolitan)
            • Family Physeteridae: (3 species) sperm whales (cosmopolitan)
            • Family Kogiidae: (2 species) dwarf sperm whales (cosmopolitan)
            • Family Platanistidae: (2 species) South Asian river dolphin (Southern Asia)
            • Family Iniidae: (1-4 species) Amazon River dolphin (South America)
            • Family Pontoporiidae: (1 species) La Plata River dolphin (South America)
            • Family Lipotidae: baiji
            • Family Ziphiidae: (24 species) beaked whales (cosmopolitan)

Standardized textbook classification[edit]

A somewhat standardized classification system has been adopted by most current mammalogy classroom textbooks. The following taxonomy of extant and recently extinct mammals is taken from the 6th edition of Vaughan's Mammalogy.[1] This approach emphasizes an initial split between egg-laying prototherians and live-bearing therians. The therians are further divided into the marsupial Metatheria and the "placental" Eutheria. No attempt is made in this classification to further distinguish among the orders within these subclasses and infraclasses. This system also makes no note of the position of entirely fossil groups.

In this and later taxonomies, families are merely listed under the order to which they belong. More detailed relationships among families is presented in the article of each order.

Subclass Prototheria[edit]

Subclass Theria[edit]

McKenna/Bell classification[edit]

In 1997, the classification of mammals was revised by Malcolm C. McKenna and Susan K. Bell.[10] The Classification of Mammals Above the species level, here referred to as the "McKenna/Bell classification", is a comprehensive work on the systematics, relationships, and occurrences of all mammal taxa, living and extinct, down through the rank of genus. The authors worked together as paleontologists at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. McKenna inherited the project from Simpson and, with Bell, constructed a completely updated hierarchical system, covering living and extinct taxa that reflects the historical genealogy of Mammalia.

The McKenna/Bell hierarchical listing of all of the terms used for mammal groups above the species includes extinct mammals as well as modern groups, and introduces some fine distinctions such as legions and sublegions and ranks which fall between classes and orders that are likely to be glossed over by the layman.

Click on the highlighted link for a table comparing the traditional and the new McKenna/Bell classifications of mammals.

Extinct groups are represented by †.

Subclass Prototheria[edit]

(monotremes)

Subclass Theriiformes[edit]

Luo, Kielan-Jaworowska, and Cifelli classification[edit]

Several important fossil mammal discoveries have been made that have led researchers to question many of the relationships proposed by McKenna and Bell (1997). Additionally, researchers are subjecting taxonomic hypotheses to more rigorous cladistic analyses of early mammal fossils. Luo et al. (2002) summarized existing ideas and proposed new ideas of relationships among mammals at the most basal level. They argued that the term mammal should be defined based on characters (especially the dentary-squamosal jaw articulation) instead of a crown-based definition (the group that contains most recent common ancestor of monotremes and therians and all of its descendants). Their definition of Mammalia is roughly equal to the Mammaliaformes as defined by McKenna and Bell (1997) and other authors. They also define their taxonomic levels as clades and do not apply Linnean hierarchies.

Mammalia

Simplified classification for non-specialists[edit]

The following classification is a simplified version based on current understanding suitable for non-specialists who want to understand how living genera are related to each other. The classification ignores differences in levels and thus cannot be used to estimate the respective distances between taxa. It also ignores taxa that became extinct in pre-historic times. Finally, English names are preferred whenever they exist. This makes it especially suited for non-specialists who wish to gain an easy overview. For the full picture, the non-simplified versions above should be consulted.

  • Monotremes (prototheria): echidnas and platypus
    • Platypus
    • Echidnas (tachyglossids)
  • Live-bearing mammals (theria)
    • Marsupials
      • Opossums (didelphids)
      • Shrew opossums (caenolestids)
      • Australodelphia: Australian marsupials and monito del Monte
        • Monito del Monte
        • Dasyuromorphs
          • Dasyurids: antechinuses, quolls, dunnarts, Tasmanian devil, and allies
          • Numbat
        • Peramelemorphs: bilbies and bandicoots
          • Bilbies (thylacomyids)
          • Bandicoots (peramelids)
        • Marsupial moles (notoryctids)
        • Diprotodonts
          • Koala
          • Wombats (vombatids)
          • Phalangerids: brushtail possums and cuscuses
          • Pygmy possums (burramyids)
          • Honey possum
          • Petaurids: striped and Leadbeater's possums, and yellow-bellied, suger, mahogany and squirrel glider
          • Ringtailed possums (pseudocheirids)
          • Potorids: potoroos, rat kangaroos and bettongs
          • Acrobatids: feathertail glider and feather-tailed possum
          • Musky rat-kangaroo
          • Macropodids: kangaroos, wallabies and allies
    • Placentals
      • Atlantic placentals (atlantogenatans)
        • Afroplacentals (afrotherians)
          • Afroinsectiphilians: elephant shrews, tenrecs, otter shrews, golden moles, and aardvark
            • Elephant shrews (macroscelidids)
            • Afrosoricids: tenrecs and golden moles
              • Tenrecids: tenrecs and otter shrews
              • Golden moles (chrysochlorids)
            • Aardvark
          • Paenungulates: hyraxes, elephants, dugongs and manatees
            • Hyraxes or dassies (procaviids)
            • Elephants (elephantids)
            • Sirenians: dugong and manatees
              • Dugong
              • Manatees (trichechids)
        • Xenarthrans
          • Pilosans: sloths and anteaters
            • Anteaters (vermilinguans)
              • Silky anteater
              • Myrmecophagids: giant anteater and tamanduas
            • Sloths (folivorans)
              • Three-toed sloths (bradypodids)
              • Two-toed sloths (megalonychids)
          • Armadillos (dasypodids)
      • Northern placentals (boreoeutherians)
        • Supraprimates (euarchontoglires)
          • Euarchontans: treeshrews, colugos and primates
            • Treeshrews (scandentians)
              • Tupaiids: all treeshrews except pen-tailed
              • Pen-tailed treeshrew
            • Colugos or flying lemurs (cynocephalids)
            • Primates
              • Strepsirrhines: lemur- and loris-like primates
                • Lemur-like primates (lemuriforms)
                  • Cheirogaleids: dwarf lemurs and mouse-lemurs
                  • Aye-aye
                  • True lemurs (lemurids)
                  • Sportive lemurs (lepilemurids)
                  • Indriids: woolly lemurs and allies
                • Loris-like primates (lorisiforms)
                  • Lorisids: lorises, pottos and allies
                  • Galagos (galagids)
              • Haplorhines: tarsiers, monkeys and apes
                • Tarsiers (tarsiids)
                • Anthropoid primates
                  • New World monkeys (platyrrhines)
                    • Callitrichids: marmosets and tamarins
                    • Cebids: capuchins and squirrel monkeys
                    • Aotids: night or owl monkeys
                    • Pitheciids: titis, sakis and uakaris
                    • Atelids: howler, spider, woolly spider, and woolly monkeys
                  • Catarrhines
                    • Old World monkeys (cercopithecids)
                    • Hominoid primates
                      • Gibbons (hylobatids)
                      • Great apes (hominids): incl. Humans
          • Glires: pikas, rabbits, hares, and rodents
            • Lagomorphs: pikas, rabbits and hares
              • Leporids: rabbits and hares
              • Pikas (ochotonids)
            • Rodents
              • Anomalure-like rodents (anomaluromorphs): Scaly-tailed squirrels and springhares
                • Scaly-tailed squirrels or anomalures (anomalurids)
                • Springhares (pedetids)
              • Beaver-like rodents (castorimorphs)
                • Beavers (castorids)
                • Gopher-like rodents (geomyoid rodents)
                  • Pocket or true gophers (geomyids)
                  • Heteromyids: kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice
              • Porcupine-like rodents (hystricomorphs)
                • Laotian rock rat
                • Gundis (ctenodactylids)
                • Hystricognaths
                  • African mole rats (bathyergids)
                  • Old World porcupines (hystricids)
                  • Dassie rat
                  • Cane rats (thryonomyids)
                  • Cavy-like rodents (caviomorphs)
                    • Chinchilla rats (abrocomids)
                    • Hutias (capromyids)
                    • Cavies (caviids): incl. Guinea pigs and capybara
                    • Chinchillids: chinchillas and viscachas
                    • Tuco-tucos (ctenomyids)
                    • Agoutis (dasyproctids)
                    • Pacas (cuniculids)
                    • Pacarana
                    • Spiny rats (echymyids)
                    • New World porcupines (erethizontids)
                    • Myocastorids: nutria and coypu
                    • Octodonts (octodontids): Andean rock-rats, degus and viscacha-rats
              • Mouse-like rodents (myomorphs)
                • Dipodids: jerboas and jumping mice
                • Muroid rodents
                  • Mouse-like hamsters (calomyscids)
                  • Cricetids: hamsters, New World rats and mice, voles
                  • Murids: true mice and rats, gerbils, spiny mice, crested rat
                  • Nesomyids: climbing mice, rock mice, white-tailed rat, Malagasy rats and mice
                  • Spiny dormice (platacanthomyids)
                  • Spalacids: mole rats, bamboo rats, and zokors
              • Squirrel-like rodents (sciuromorphs)
                • Mountain beaver
                • Dormice (glirids)
                • Squirrels (sciurids): incl. chipmunks, prairie dogs, and marmots
        • Laurasian placentals (laurasiatherians)
          • Hedgehogs (erinaceids)
          • Soricomorphs: moles, shrews, solenodons
            • Shrews (soricids)
            • Moles (talpids)
            • Solenodons (solenodontids)
          • Ferungulates: ungulates, cetaceans, bats, pangolins and carnivorans
            • Cetartiodactyls: even-toed ungulates and cetaceans
              • Camelids: camels and llamas
              • Swine (suinans): pigs and peccaries
                • Pigs (suids)
                • Peccaries (tayassuids)
              • Cetruminantians: cetaceans, hippos and ruminants
                • Cetancodonts: cetaceans and hippos
                  • Cetaceans: Whales, dolphins and porpoises
                    • Baleen whales (mysticetes)
                      • Balaenids: right whales and bowhead whale
                      • Rorquals (balaenopterids)
                      • Gray whale
                      • Pygmy right whale
                    • Toothed whales (odontocetes)
                      • Dolphins (delphinids)
                      • Monodontids: beluga and narwhal
                        • Beluga
                        • Narwhal
                      • Porpoises (phocoenids)
                      • Sperm whale
                      • Kogiids: pygmy and dwarf sperm whale
                      • River dolphins (platanistoid whales)
                        • Iniids: Amazon and Bolivian river dolphin
                        • La Plata dolphin
                        • Platanistids: Ganges and Indus river dolphins
                      • Beaked whales (ziphids)
                  • Hippos (hippopotamids)
                • Ruminantiamorphs: chevrotains, pronghorn, giraffes, musk deer, deer, and bovids
                  • Chevrotains (tragulids)
                  • Pecorans
                    • Pronghorn
                    • Giraffids: giraffe and okapi
                    • Musk deer (moschids)
                    • Deer (cervids)
                    • Bovids: cattle, goats, sheep and antelope
            • Pegasoferans: bats, odd-toed ungulates, pangolins and carnivorans
              • Bats (chiropterans)
                • Megabats (pteropodids)
                • Microbats (microchiropterans)
                  • Sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats (emballonurids)
                  • Rhinopomatoid bats
                    • Mouse-tailed bats (rhinopomatids)
                    • Bumblebee bat or Kitti's hog-nosed bat
                  • Rhinolophoid bats
                    • Horseshoe bats (rhinolophids)
                    • Hollow-faced or slit-faced bats (nycterids)
                    • False vampires (megadermatids)
                  • Vesper bats or evening bats (vespertilionids)
                  • Molossoid bats
                    • Free-tailed bats (molossids)
                    • Pallid bats (antrozoids)
                  • Nataloid bats
                    • Funnel-eared bats (natalids)
                    • Sucker-footed bats (myzopodids)
                    • Disc-winged bats (thyropterids)
                    • Smoky bats (furipterids)
                  • Noctilionoid bats
                    • Bulldog or fisherman bats (noctilionids)
                    • New Zealand short-tailed bats (mystacinids)
                    • Ghost-faced or moustached bats (mormoopids)
                    • Leaf-nosed bats (phyllostomids)
              • Zooamatans: odd-toed ungulates, pangolins and carnivorans
                • Odd-toed ungulates (perissodactyls)
                  • Horses (equids)
                  • Ceratomorphs
                    • Tapirs (tapirids)
                    • Rhinoceroses (rhinocerotids)
                • Ferans
                  • Pangolins or scaly anteaters (manids)
                  • Carnivorans
                    • Cat-like carnivorans (feliforms)
                      • African palm civet
                      • Feloid carnivorans
                        • Asiatic linsangs (prionodontids)
                        • Cats (felids)
                      • Viverroid carnivorans
                        • Viverrids: civets and allies
                        • Herpestoid carnivorans
                          • Hyaenids: hyenas and aardwolf
                          • Malagasy carnivorans (euplerids)
                          • Herpestids: mongooses and allies
                    • Dog-like carnivorans (caniforms)
                      • Canids: dogs and allies
                      • Arctoid carnivorans
                        • Bears (ursids)
                        • Musteloid carnivorans
                          • Red panda
                          • Mephitids: skunks and stink badgers
                          • Mustelids: weasels, martens, badgers, wolverines, minks, ferrets and otters
                          • Procyonids: raccoons and allies
                        • Pinnipeds
                          • Walrus
                          • Otariids: sea lions, eared seals, fur seals
                          • True seals (phocids)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Vaughan, Terry A.; Ryan, James M.; Czaplewski, Nicholas J. (2015). "Chapter 4: Classification of Mammals" (PDF). Mammalogy (Sixth ed.). ISBN 9781284032093.
  2. ^ Marks, Jonathan M. (1995). Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race, and History. ISBN 9780202366562.
  3. ^ a b Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Kiefmann, Martin; Jordan, Ursula; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen (2006). "Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals". PLOS Biology. 4 (4): e91. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040091. PMC 1395351. PMID 16515367.
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