Foreign relations of Zimbabwe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nations with which Zimbabwe has diplomatic relations.

Zimbabwe maintains relations with various countries around the world, and maintains close diplomatic relations with neighboring nations.

Bilateral relationships[edit]

Zimbabwe has significant bilateral relations with several countries.

Following Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom in 1965 Rhodesia's diplomatic presence was dramatically rolled back across the world. By the time of the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979 Rhodesia only had representative offices in London, Bonn, Pretoria, Sydney, Washington, D.C. and Tokyo. Missions in Maputo (then Lourenço Marques) and Lisbon were closed in 1975 following the Carnation Revolution in Portugal. Under Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe ran a new foreign policy which operated more closely with African, Soviet and NAM states.

Some white Rhodesians who have left their country following ZANU-PF coming to power have established "embassies" and offices representing a government in exile in places afar as Thailand, Iceland and London.

The capital of the country, Harare, currently hosts 51 embassies. Several other countries have ambassadors accredited from other capital cities, mainly Pretoria and Addis Ababa. Several countries have closed their embassies in Zimbabwe in recent years to protest the policies of President Robert Mugabe, with the Czech Republic and Botswana being the latest to announce their intentions to do so.[1][2] The information provided on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Zimbabwe's website is outdated, and due to the country's growing isolation, several embassies that are listed have closed. The information was checked on the websites of other foreign ministries to ensure accuracy.

Africa[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 31 August 1980[3]
  • Algeria has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola See Angola–Zimbabwe relations

Angola-Zimbabwe relations have remained cordial since the birth of both states, Angola in 1975 and Zimbabwe in 1980, during the Cold War. While Angola's foreign policy shifted to a pro-U.S. stance based on substantial economic ties, under the rule of President Robert Mugabe Zimbabwe's ties with the West soured in the late 1990s.

  • Angola has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Luanda.
 Botswana 30 May 1983[4]

Though initially friendly towards Zimbabwe, several disputes between the two countries have soured relations in recent years. Such problems include the fact that Botswana has seen an influx of refugees from Zimbabwe; the building of a fence along the border,[5] and has complained on several occasions of a campaign by Zimbabwe's state-run media against the government of Botswana, where it cites claims of human rights abuses against Zimbabwean's and the claim that Botswana, along with the United Kingdom and other countries were supporting the opposition in Zimbabwe.[6] Recently, relations have further been strained when the government of Botswana lodged a protest against the political violence occurring in Zimbabwe and the detention of opposition members in the country, stating it was "uncalled for".[7][8]

Protesting the outcome of the Zimbabwean presidential election of 2008, and the 'illegitimate' regime in Zimbabwe, President Ian Khama boycotted the Southern African Development Community (SADC) summit on 16–17 August, which was instead attended by the Botswana Foreign Minister.[9]

Relations have further deteriorated between Zimbabwe, Botswana and Zambia after the latter two countries withdrew from a Memorandum of Understanding, excluding Zimbabwe and signed a new one to undertake the construction of the Kazungula Bridge Project on a bilateral basis. This was done despite a caution from the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NPAD) to not let politics interfere with the development project.[10]

In November 2008, Botswana foreign minister Phandu Skelemani stated that all countries bordering Zimbabwe should close their borders with the country, to 'bring down Robert Mugabe's government'.[11]

  • Botswana has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Gaborone.
 Burundi 26 April 1985 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 April 1985[12]
 Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde has an accredited mission in Luanda
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Kinshasa.
 Republic of the Congo
  • Republic of the Congo has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Cairo.
 Eswatini
  • Eswatini (formally known as Swaziland) has an accredited mission in Pretoria.
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Gabon 27 August 1990 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 August 1990[13]
 Ghana
  • Ghana has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Accra.
 Guinea
  • Guinea has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Kenya See Kenya–Zimbabwe relations

Following the controversial Zimbabwean presidential election of 2008, Kenyan Prime Minister Raila Odinga urged the African Union to suspend Zimbabwe until "free and fair elections" have taken place.[14] He has also called for the removal of Mugabe.[15]

  • Kenya has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Lesotho
  • Lesotho has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Liberia 15 October 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 October 1982[16]
 Libya

In the past Zimbabwe has enjoyed a close relationship with the government of Muammar Gaddafi partly due to their shared animosity towards Western governments. During the 2011 Libyan civil war the Mugabe regime indicated that it will not recognise the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council. When the staff of the Libyan embassy defected and joined the NTC after the decisive Battle of Tripoli in August 2011 Harare expelled the embassy, giving them 48 hours to leave the country.[17][18]

  • Libya has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Tripoli.
 Malawi
  • Malawi has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Lilongwe.
 Mauritius
  • Mauritius has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Mozambique
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Maputo and a consulate general in Beira.
 Namibia See Namibia–Zimbabwe relations

The ruling parties of Namibia (since independence in 1990) and Zimbabwe (since independence in 1980) have been close since pre-independence days, as both were anti-colonial movements against white-minority governments.[19]

  • Namibia has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Windhoek.
 Niger 10 February 1986 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 February 1986[20]
 Nigeria
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Abuja.
 Rwanda
  • Rwanda has an accredited mission in Pretoria.
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 24 May 1983[21]
  • The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has an accredited mission in Maputo.
 Sierra Leone
  • Sierra Leone has an accredited mission in Addis Ababa
 South Africa See South Africa–Zimbabwe relations
  • South Africa has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate general in Johannesburg.

In recent years, following the political crisis in the country, the ex-president Thabo Mbeki mediated with the MDC and Zanu PF to form a unity government, and often remained silent on the issues in Zimbabwe, which drew criticism.[22] Following a cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe, the ruling ANC in South Africa became impatient and has urged the parties to form a unity government.[23]

 Sudan
  • Sudan has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Khartoum.
 Tanzania
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
 Tunisia
  • Tunisia has an accredited mission in Pretoria.
 Uganda
  • Uganda has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Zambia See Zambia–Zimbabwe relations

Initially, the two countries had good relations after gaining independence. However, relations have recently been strained as Zambia, like Botswana, has reported similar 'smear campaigns' against the Zambian government by Zimbabwe's state-owned media, claiming it was "hired by Britain to press for a speedy regime change in Harare." The foreign affairs minister, Kabinga Pande, has said it has lodged a protest against Zimbabwe, against the "sustained malicious campaign against Zambia."[24]

Following the controversial Zimbabwean presidential election of 2008, Zambian President Levy Mwanawasa described Mugabe's Zimbabwe as a "regional embarrassment".[25]

  • Zambia has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Lusaka.

Americas[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina
  • Argentina is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Argentina from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Bahamas 1989[26]
  • Bahamas is accredited to Zimbabwe from its high commission in Ottawa, Canada.
 Bolivia 24 November 2021 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 November 2021[27]
 Brazil 18 April 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1980[28]
 Canada 1980
Embassy of Zimbabwe in Ottawa
  • Canada has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Ottawa.

Because of Zimbabwe's poor record on human rights and democracy, Canada has imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe which include aid suspension and visa-ban to some members of the Harare government. Bilateral trade totalled C$16 million in 2011, down from C$430 million in 1999. Canadian investment in Zimbabwe is primarily in the mining sector.[29]

 Chile
  • Chile is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Cuba

"In the face of Western domination, Cuba is a beacon of hope against imperialism. Cuba is fighting to remove sanctions in their country and Zimbabwe is doing the same. We have a lot to learn from Cuba which started its revolution in 1959. We will continue with our solidarity, continue with the struggle and strengthen our co-operation."

— Arthur Mutambara, Zimbabwe's Deputy Prime Minister[30]
  • Cuba has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Havana.
 Guatemala 2 March 2007 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 March 2007[31]
 Guyana 19 June1980

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 June 1980.[32]

 Mexico March 1985 See Mexico–Zimbabwe relations

Mexico and Zimbabwe established diplomatic relations in March 1985. Mexico opened an embassy in Harare in 1990, however, the embassy was later closed in 1994.[33]

  • Mexico is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.[34]
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.[35]
 Paraguay 29 March 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 March 2012[36]
 Peru
  • Peru is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 30 November 2021 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 November 2021[37]
 United States 18 April 1980[38]
Embassy of Zimbabwe in Washington

See United States–Zimbabwe relations

U.S. President Jimmy Carter met with Zimbabwean Prime Minister Robert Mugabe in August 1980.[39] Author Geoff Hill criticized Carter for keeping "quiet as Mugabe nationalized the press, committed genocide against minority tribes and subverted [Zimbabwe's] constitution to make himself the sole source of authority."[40]

Zimbabwean Foreign Minister Simbarashe Mumbengegwi summoned U.S. Ambassador to Zimbabwe Christopher Dell on 9 November 2005 and expressed his "extreme displeasure" with comments Dell made a few days earlier in Mutare. Dell had said government corruption had led to food shortages. Mugabe said Dell could "go to hell."[41] Dell left Zimbabwe for Washington, D.C., United States on 9 November for consultations after meeting with Minister Mumbengegwi.[42]

  • United States has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Washington, D.C.
 Uruguay
  • Uruguay is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
 Venezuela 7 April 1987 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 April 1987[43]

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 31 March 1987 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 March 1987[44]
 Armenia 30 June 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 June 1992[45]

 Azerbaijan 24 October 2008[46] On October 24, 2008, the Protocol on establishing diplomatic relations between Azerbaijan and Zimbabwe was signed.[46]
 Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 China 1980-04-18 See China–Zimbabwe relations

The People's Republic of China supported Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union while the Soviet Union supported Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union, competing militant Marxist organizations that sought an end to Rhodesia and the establishment of a one-party Communist state in its place.[47] The PRC's initial investment in Mugabe has continued. China has invested more in Zimbabwe than any other nation with 35 companies spending over $600 million USD.[48] The close economic relationship between Zimbabwe and China is partly driven by sanctions imposed by Western nations in response to the Zimbabwean government's continued human rights abuses.[49]

Li Ke, China's Vice-Minister for Economic Relations, visited Zimbabwe for 13 days in September 1980. Mugabe visited China on 13 October and met with Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang.[3]

In June or July 2006, the Zimbabwean government secretly bought Chinese rifles, bullets, anti-riot gear and other military equipment in return for 30 tons of ivory, violating the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species which forbids the sale of ivory. Interpol and CITES, an ivory-watchdog organization, are investigating the sale.[50] The Zimbabwean government bought six military aircraft from China in 2005 and another six aircraft from three Chinese firms on 23 August 2006.[51] Two days later the Zimbabwe National Army said it bought 127 trucks for $1.2 million.[52]

The Chinese government donated farm machinery worth $25 million to Zimbabwe on 21 April, including 424 tractors and 50 trucks, as part of a $58 million loan to the Zimbabwean government. The Mugabe administration previously seized white-owned farms and gave them to blacks, damaging machinery in the process. In return for the equipment and the loan the Zimbabwean government will ship 30 million kilograms of tobacco to the People's Republic of China immediately and as much as 80 million kilograms over the next five years.[49] John Nkomo, Speaker of the House of Assembly of Zimbabwe, praised China's investment on 24 April 2007 during a state dinner in Harare held during the four-day visit of Jia Qinglin, Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, to Zimbabwe.[48] Misheck Sibanda, the Chief Secretary to the President and Cabinet, Edna Madzongwe, President of the Senate, cabinet ministers, and legislators from both ZANU-PF and the Movement for Democratic Change attended the dinner.[53]

  • China has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Beijing.
 Georgia 24 June 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 July 1992.[54]

 India

See India-Zimbabwe relations

  • India has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in New Delhi
 Indonesia 14 August 1986[55]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Jakarta
 Iran 11 February 1983 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1983[56]
  • Iran has an embassy in Harare
 Israel 1993 See Israel–Zimbabwe relations
  • Israel-Zimbabwe relations are extraordinarily poor with the state-run publication, The Herald, questioning the legitimacy of Israel's existence. The Zimbabwean government recognizes an independent Palestinian state and advocates a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
 Japan
  • Japan has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kuwait
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Kuwait City
 Kyrgyzstan 7 December 2017 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 December 2017[57]
 Lebanon 29 March 2022 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 March 2022[58]
 Malaysia 25 September 1987[59]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur
   Nepal 27 November 1984 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 November 1984[60]
  • Nepal has an accredited mission in Cairo
 North Korea
  • North Korea has an accredited mission in Dar es Salaam
  • Zimbabwe has an accredited mission in Seoul.
 Oman 15 June 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 June 1982[61]
  • Oman has an accredited mission in London
 Pakistan See Pakistan–Zimbabwe relations
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Harare
 Qatar 11 June 1998 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 June 1998[62]
 Saudi Arabia 1980-06[3]
 Singapore 31 July 1987 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 July 1987[63]
  • Singapore has an accredited mission in Petoria, South Africa
 South Korea 1994-11-18[64]
  • South Korea has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Seoul.[64]
 Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lanka has accredited missions in Nairobi and Pretoria
 Tajikistan 28 December 2017 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 December 2017[65]
 Thailand 4 April 1985 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 April 1985[66]
  • Thailand has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Turkey 2 July 1982[67] See Turkey–Zimbabwe relations
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Ankara.[68]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Harare.[68]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was US$17.7 million in 2019 (Zimbabwe's exports/imports: 11.8/5.9 million USD).[68]
 Turkmenistan 22 March 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 March 1999.[69]

 Uzbekistan 18 January 2008 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 January 2008[70]
 Vietnam 24 July 1981 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 July 1981[71] Due to Vietnam and Zimbabwe being effectively on opposite sides of the Sino-Soviet split, Vietnam and Zimbabwe spent the 1980s having very minimal relations.
  • Vietnam has an accredited mission in Luanda
 Yemen
  • Yemen has an embassy in Harare.

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Austria
  • Austria had an embassy in Harare until 2011, when the Embassy was shut down.[72]
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Vienna
 Belgium
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Brussels
  • Belgium has a consolate in Harare
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 11 July 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 July 2012[73]
 Bulgaria
  • Bulgaria has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Croatia 12 February 1999 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 February 1999[74]
 Cyprus
  • Cyprus has an accredited mission in Nairobi
 Denmark
 Estonia 29 June 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 June 1992[77]
 Finland 1 August 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 August 1980[78]
  • Finland has an accredited mission in Maputo
 France 18 April 1980[79]

Upon taking power in 1980, Mugabe was "sharply critical" of French president Valery Giscard d'Estaing, said that he hoped their next president François Mitterrand would be better.[80] In the 1990s relations between France and Zimbabwe were very cold due Robert Mugabe's support for Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy during the Djiboutian Civil War, which placed Zimbabwe on the opposite side of the conflict than France. French President Jacques Chirac angered the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States when in February 2003 he invited President Mugabe to a Franco-African conference on Africa held in France. Mugabe said he felt "at home" in Paris and "President Chirac insisted that we attend. He held firm to his principles. We need leaders of his stature." Chirac later emphasized that he had not kissed Mugabe on his cheeks when the conference began.[81] The UK had previously tried to get the European Union to deny Mugabe the right to come to Europe, citing human rights abuses in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said it was "a slap in the face for the French Government or any government in Europe to be accommodating him."[82][83] Ministers were said to be "furious" at the prospect of Grace Mugabe, the President's wife, returning to the stricken country with "crates of luxury goods" while Zimbabwe was in the middle of a self-inflicted crisis that resulted in mass starvation. A British minister remarked "The thought of Mugabe gorging himself on French food while his people starve is morally repugnant." The French government paid for Robert and Grace Mugabe to stay at the five-star Plaza Athénée Hotel.[84] About the meeting the U.S. publication the Washington Post wrote: "Who would be irresponsible enough to lend legitimacy to Mugabe, a man whose brutal land-seizure tactics have reduced much of Zimbabwe to starvation? But you have probably guessed the answer: It is that friend of liberty, fraternity and equality -- the president of France."[85]

  • France has a mission in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Paris.
 Germany 18 April 1980[86]

German Chancellor Helmut Kohl had notoriously bad relations with the Zimbabwean government throughout the 1980s and most of the 1990s. While this was not due to any personal animosity between Kohl and Mugabe, it was rather due to an "indifference to the region" on the part of Kohl which led to Zimbabwean diplomats consistently viewing the German government as "cold and uncaring." As of 2018, the German government stated they remained "hesitant" to begin "cooperation with Zimbabwe."[87] German Chancellor Angela Merkel controversially stated that "Zimbabwe damages Africa's image."[88]

  • Germany has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Berlin.
 Greece See Greece–Zimbabwe relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Harare
  Holy See
  • Holy See has an embassy in Harare
 Hungary
  • Hungary has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Ireland
  • Ireland has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 Italy
  • Italy has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Rome
 Latvia 23 January 2015

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 January 2015.[89]

 Lithuania 18 June 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 June 1992.[90]

 Montenegro 22 November 2010 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 November 2010[91]
 Netherlands
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Harare
 North Macedonia 13 January 2011 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 January 2011[92]
 Norway
  • Norway has an embassy in Harare
 Poland
  • Poland has an embassy in Harare
 Portugal 18 April 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1980[93]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has a consulate general in Lisbon
 Romania
  • Romania has an embassy in Harare
 Russia 1981-02-18 See Russia–Zimbabwe relations

Russia-Zimbabwe relations date back to January 1979, during the Rhodesian Bush War. The Soviet Union supported Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union, and supplied them with arms; Robert Mugabe's attempts to gain Soviet support for his Zimbabwe African National Union were rebuffed, leading him to enter into relations with Soviet rival Beijing. Throughout the 1980s Zimbabwean relations with the USSR were notoriously cold. Mugabe "stonewalled" the Soviets "for ten months" rather than establish relations with them while he was establishing relations with other countries including the United Kingdom and the United States. The agreement the Soviets were forced to agree to demanded they meet strict criteria about how they could operate in Zimbabwe, while no other country had to agree to similar concessions before establishing relations. The agreement was described as "embarrassing and humiliating for the Soviets since it singles them out."[94] Mugabe shunned Russian help and allowed British military bases to be established in Zimbabwe against Russian protests, while also accepting the help of British military advisers and declining the same offers from the Soviet Union. Several American-made movies were aired in Zimbabwean movie theaters in the 1980s that the Soviets believed constituted "anti-Soviet propaganda," including the movies Invasion U.S.A., Red Dawn, Firefox, Rocky IV, Rambo: First Blood Part II, Water, The Living Daylights, The Whistle Blower, and Rambo III. The Soviet embassy officially protested, however, they were allegedly told by Mugabe "to complain to your ZIPRA friends."[95][96] During a speech in Pakistan, Mugabe outspokenly opposed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and compared the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan with apartheid in South Africa, Jay Ross of the Washington Post referred to this as "about as harsh a criticism of Moscow as an African leader could make."[97] Mugabe condemned the Soviet invasion of Aghanistan throughout the 1980s.[98] However, since the 2000s Robert Mugabe had strengthened his relations with both Beijing and Moscow as a result of intense western pressure on him. Zimbabwe was one of the few countries that voted with Russia on United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 about the annexation of Crimea.[99][100][101] Russia maintains strong economic and political ties with Zimbabwe.

 Serbia
  • Serbia has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Belgrade
 Slovakia
  • Slovakia has an accredited mission in Pretoria.
 Slovenia 22 July 2016 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 July 2016[102]
 Spain
  • Spain has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Spain from its embassy in Paris, France.
 Sweden
  • Sweden has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Stockholm
 Switzerland
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Harare
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1980.[103]
 Ukraine 25 April 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 April 1992[104]
  • Ukraine has an accredited mission in Pretoria
 United Kingdom 18 April 1980[79] See United Kingdom–Zimbabwe relations
Embassy of Zimbabwe in London

Historically, relations between Zimbabwe and the United Kingdom were close. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was instrumental in the transition to majority rule and independence, and throughout the 1980s she proved to be a close friend of Zimbabwe. In the early 1990s John Major had a friendly working relationship with Robert Mugabe and both visited Zimbabwe and also invited Robert Mugabe to the United Kingdom.[105] However, between 1998 and 2017, relations between Zimbabwe and the UK had been typically cold; with President Robert Mugabe frequently accusing the former colonial power of sabotage; ruining the country and attempting to invade the country.[106] In turn, UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown refused to attend an African/European summit while Mugabe was invited, citing Zimbabwe's poor human rights record.[107] The UK also did not attend an address by Mugabe at the 2008 UN Food Summit, stating that his presence there was "obscene".[108] However, Mugabe was later forcibly removed from power in November 2017 and soon afterwards, Britain's Minister to Africa Rory Stewart became the first British Minister to visit Zimbabwe in two decades.[109] In January 2019, Conservative Secretary and defence spokesman Geoffrey Van Orden MEP said that the EU should review its sanctions against Zimbabwe following the brutal crackdown on opposition forces.[110]

  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in London.

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia See Australia–Zimbabwe relations

In 2002, the Howard government in Australia imposed targeted sanctions against members of the Zimbabwean government in protest against the deteriorating political situation in Zimbabwe. The sanctions were extended and strengthened in 2007.[111] These sanctions have included restrictions on travel to and through Australia for certain members of the Zimbabwean government, suspension of all non-humanitarian aid, and prohibitions on defence links.[112] The Rudd government in 2008 considered further sanctions against Zimbabwe, with foreign minister Stephen Smith declaring that "I've made it clear that we are open to consider more sanctions ... We are currently giving active consideration to that issue."[113]

  • Australia has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Canberra.
 Fiji 15 February 1985[114]

Relations between Zimbabwe and Fiji were very cordial in the late 1980s and throughout most of the 1990s, however, Fiji repeatedly condemned human rights violations carried out by the Zimbabwean government of Robert Mugabe from the year 2000 until 2017. President of Fiji Jioji Konrote said he hoped that the ascension of Emmerson Mnangagwa would allow for better relations between Fiji and Zimbabwe.

  • Fiji is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Fiji from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
 New Zealand 15 February 1985[114]
  • New Zealand is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.

Multilateral organizations[edit]

Zimbabwe has missions to several multilateral organizations:

Zimbabwe and the Commonwealth of Nations[edit]

Zimbabwe became an independent republic in the Commonwealth of Nations on 18 April 1980. Zimbabwe withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations in December 2003, due to international criticism of the Government of Zimbabwe's human rights record.

Emmerson Mnangagwa, Robert Mugabe's successor as President of Zimbabwe, has stated that Zimbabwe will apply to return to the Commonwealth in late 2018, following in the footsteps of The Gambia returning to the Commonwealth on 8 February 2018.

Sibusiso Moyo attended the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018 in his capacity as Minister of Foreign Affairs.

The British Government has expressed support for Zimbabwe to return to its membership of the Commonwealth.[115]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Schwartz, Richard. Coming to Terms: Zimbabwe in the International Arena I. B. Tauris.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Botswana to close its Harare embassy". Irinnews.org. 5 December 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
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  4. ^ Le mois en Afrique, Issues 211-216. Le Mois en Afrique., 1983. p. 168.
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  15. ^ "Kenya PM calls for Mugabe removal", BBC, 4 December 2008.
  16. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa, Issues 7119-7170. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1982.
  17. ^ "Zim expels Libya ambassador for recognising rebels". Mail and Guardian. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  18. ^ "Libyan envoy to Zimbabwe expelled for burning flag". The Zimbabwean. 26 August 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  19. ^ Zimbabwe heaps praise on Swapo's transition effort Archived 18 June 2004 at the Wayback Machine by Tangeni Amupadhi, The Namibian, 3 June 2004
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  22. ^ "Mbeki urges patience in Zimbabwe"[permanent dead link], The National Post, 8 April 2008.
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